Instructions - Health Application



About Vaccines and Preparation before vaccination

What are vaccines?
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. - WHO.

Importance of Vaccination
Vaccination protects children from serious illness and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases which can include amputation of an arm or leg, paralysis of limbs, hearing loss, convulsions, brain damage, and death. Vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and whooping cough, are still a threat.

Benefits of vaccination
Some of these diseases can cause serious long-term health problems or death. Vaccines have saved more lives than any other medical intervention, including antibiotics or surgery. Vaccines also help prevent disabilities such as blindness and paralysis that can be caused by disease.

Objectives
Vaccination is an effective way to reduce morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases.

Immunization
Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body's own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.
IAP latest recommendations on vaccinations
IAP Guidelines 2018-19

Preparing for Vaccination:
Usually parents should know the child is healthy, good and happy before taking to the vaccination. It is important to measure child's temperature. Check for minor illness, fever, cough or cold. Do not guess, Take the temperature before the vaccination.
-Try to have your child calm before taking it.
-For taking temperature use armpit, it is safe for a child especially babies.
-Use digital thermometers for accuracy and safety.
Useful temperature chart (based on armpit readings)
Normal temperature is about 37℃ or 98.6℉, However, it can be as low as 36.1℃(97℉) in the morning to a high of 37.2℃(99℉) in the evening and still be considered normal. An infant may show more than normal temperature if she/he is overdressed. There are external as well as internal factors due to which temperature varies and still considered as normal. Surrounding temperature range if it is hot or cold. Body temperature varies in babies, toddler and adults Temperature can show variation if human being is sleepy, hungry or cold. The area where the temperature reading is taken also shows variation like armpit, oral, rectal, ear or core. Even the gender shows temperature variation.

Following are the general guidelines, in case of any doubts it is advisable to consult your DOCTOR before any conclusion.
In case of Fever also follow the same and take temperature every 4 hours and keep record in fever tracker.

Range Stages Help to manage fever
94.5℉ -99.1℉ Normal- No fever
99.3℉-100.4℉ Low fever -Take most of the clothes off
- Do nor wrap child in a blanket
- Keep room cool, use a fan
- Give more water to drink.
100.4℉-102.02℉ Fever All above measures and fever medicines.
102.2℉ and higher High Fever Contact your doctor immediately

You are ready to go :
Inform your Doctor, Confirm your appointment
Carry child's vaccination records along with to the Doctor.

On reaching your Doctor :
Inform Doctor if the child has any allergy to egg.
Update Doctor with any history of convulsions or any ongoing medications. If you have any queries about a vaccine ask beforehand. Read the information and know after effect and care to be taken.
Make it less stressful for the child and family, DO not create any fears about injection and Doctor. Otherwise child becomes more resistant and uncooperative to the process.

Common side effects after the vaccination: Majority times seen
Children may feel mild discomfort after getting vaccination. This may last for 1 or 2 days.
Common.
-Redness at the place of injection
-Fever after 1 or 2 days, lasting 1 or 2 days.
-Cranky, fussy, irritable.
And more possible
-After oral vaccines, diarrhea, stomach pain, gas
-After MMR or chickenpox vaccine: fever rash or both may appear up to several weeks
-Lump at the place of injection may last for 1 to 4 weeks and goes away, it usually does not harm.

Help in case of sore arm or leg
- Cuddle your child.
- Hold your child sitting up -
- Apply a clean, cool, wet washcloth to sore area.

If needed to take medicine for fever post vaccination.
TAKE MEDICINES ONLY UNDER THE INSTRUCTIONS OF YOUR DOCTOR.

CONTACT doctor immediately if your child has any of the following:POST VACCINATION

- High fever (39℃/102.2℉ or higher)
- Weakness and looks pale or sick
- Increased sleepiness and does not wake up to eat.
- Crying for more than 3 hours
- A strange cry, different than their normal cry
- Hives (raised red or pink spots of different sizes on skin)
- Seizure or convulsions (shaking, twitching or jerking motions of the body)
- Swollen abdomen, vomiting often, bloody stools
- A fever for more than 48 hours